The infection in vagina or Vaginitis is a condition which affects young to adult women almost alike and interferes with few activities of normal life. There are many microorganisms which thrive in this organ with a very complex and intricate balance between them; there are certain factors which can disturb this balance by reducing number of particular type of microorganisms and allowing others to flourish. When any pathogen gets a chance to proliferate it results in inflammation of vagina which also accompanies itching, pain and discharge, this condition is called as Vaginitis, and infection causing it can also affect Vulva.
The three main kinds of Vaginitis are Bacterial Vaginitis, Candidacies and Trichomoniasis. There are certain symptoms of this infection but some women can be asymptomatic, Doctors need to do certain tests specifically to diagnose presence of infection in female genital passage. Gynecologist's advice their patients coming for regular check-ups to present themselves for the tests which can diagnose Vaginitis as this problem cannot be diagnosed through tests done in regular check-up.
Nearly, 90 percent of total cases of Vaginitis can be attributed to three causes, Bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Among these bacterial vaginosis is most common, it accounts to nearly 50 percent of total cases of Vaginitis. This infection occurs due to over-growth of microorganisms like Gardnerella vaginalis etc, IUD, pregnancy and frequent douching are believed to be the most commonly found triggers causing over-growth of these organisms. Candida species are natural inhabitants of vagina and cause vaginal candidiasis which is second most common cause of the problem. In nearly 85 to 90 percent cases vaginal candidiasis is caused by C albicans and in 5 to 10 percent cases it is caused by C glabatra or C parapsilosis.
Major triggers of this infection - use of IUD, oral contraceptives, young age at first intercourse, increased frequency of intercourse, receptive cunnilingus, diabetes, HIV, long-term antibiotic use, pregnancy and other medical conditions which compromise immunity. Trichomoniasis is third most commonly found infection which is caused by Trichomonads. These organisms get transmitted by sexual contact and most commonly infect vaginal epithelium. Common triggers are tobacco use, unprotected sex with multiple partners and use of an IUD. Other factors which have been identified as infection promoters are - use of harsh soaps, feminine sprays near genitals, tight underwear, scented detergents and poor personal hygiene. Apart from these, hormonal imbalance, growing age and underlying skin disease also promote growth of pathogens to allow infection and inflammation in vagina.
A woman suffering with Vaginitis has itching, burning, pain and discharge. Inflammation, redness, irritation and swelling of labia majora, labia minora and perineal area are also common
symptoms of Vaginitis. Frequent discharge with or without irritating odor, and pain or burning during lovemaking are other symptoms of the problem. These symptoms indicate presence of an infection but medication shall be started only after proper diagnosis by a medical practitioner. Many patients arrive with aggravated infection due to self-medication.
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