Query Optimizer Concepts

The query optimizer (called simply the optimizer) is built-in data source software that decides the most effective method for an SQL declaration to gain access asked for information.

This area contains the following topics:

1. Goal of the Query Optimizer

2. Cost-Based Optimization

3. Performance Plans

Purpose of the Query Optimizer

The optimizer efforts to generate the best performance strategy for a SQL declaration. The best performance program’s described as the strategy with the cheapest among all considered applicant plans. The price calculations accounts for factors of query performance such as I/O, CPU, and interaction.

The best way of performance relies on variety of conditions such as how the query is written, the size of the information set, the structure of the information, and which accessibility components exist. The optimizer decides the best strategy for a SQL declaration by analyzing several accessibility techniques, such as complete desk check out or catalog tests, and different be a part of techniques such as stacked circles and hash connects.

Cost-Based Optimization

Query marketing is the overall procedure for choosing the most efficient means of performing a SQL declaration. SQL is a nonprocedural language, so the optimizer is free to combine, rearrange, and procedure in any order.

The information source maximizes each SQL declaration centered on research gathered about the utilized information. When producing performance programs, the optimizer views different access routes and be a part of methods.

Execution Plans

A performance strategy explains a suggested method of performance for a SQL declaration. The programs reveals a mixture of the steps Oracle Database uses to carry out a SQL declaration. Each step either retrieves series of information actually from the data base or makes them for the user providing the declaration.

An execution plans reveals the expense of the entire strategy and each individual function. The cost is an enclosed unit that the execution strategy only reveals to allow for strategy evaluations. Thus, you cannot track or change the cost value.

Description of Optimizer Components

This representation represents a parsed query (from the parser) coming into the Query Transformer.

The modified question is then sent to the Estimator. Statistics are recovered from the Dictionary, then the query and estimates are sent to the Plan Generator.

The plan generator either returns the plan to the estimator or delivers the execution plan to the row source generator.

Query Transformer

For some claims, the query transformer decides whether it is beneficial to reword the very first SQL declaration into a semantically comparative SQL declaration with a more affordable. When an affordable solution prevails, the data source determines the expense of the options independently and chooses the lowest-cost substitute. Query transformer explains the different types of optimizer transformations.


The estimator is the component of the optimizer that decides the overall expense of a given execution plan.


The portion of series in the row set that the query chooses, with 0 signifies no rows and 1 signifies all rows. Selectivity is linked with a query predicate, such as WHERE last_name LIKE ‘A%’, or a mixture of predicates.


The cardinality is the number of rows given back by each function in an execution plan. This feedback, which is crucial in acquiring an ideal strategy, is common to all cost features.


This measure symbolizes models of work or resource used. The query optimizer uses hard drive I/O, CPU utilization, and memory utilization as units of work.

Plan Generator

This strategy creator examines various programs for a query block by trying out different access routes, join methods, and join purchases. Many different programs are possible because of the various mixtures that the data source can use to produce the same result. The optimizer chooses the program with the cheapest cost.