Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB typically infects lungs (Pulmonary tuberculosis) but may also infect other parts of body (Extrapulmonary tuberculosis) such as central nervous system, lymphatic system and genitourinary system. Symptoms of the disease are fever, night sweat, chronic cough, blood-tinged sputum. According to a data published by World Health Organization (WHO), in 2012 around 8.6 million people were diagnosed with tuberculosis while 1.3 million died with the disease. Various Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) forms of the Mycobacterium have been identified which make the treatment more difficult as the routine drugs cannot be used to treat the disease.
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Identification of the disease in early stages helps in effective treatment hence various rapid identification tests are performed for diagnosis. TB tests are performed in hospitals as well as in research laboratories which constitute a large market across the globe.
Tuberculosis testing market can be segmented as follows-
Rapid testing methods
ELISPOT (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent spot)
MODS (Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility)
PCR method(Polymerase Chain Reaction)
Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA)
Skin testing (Mantaux Test)
Most of the immunological tests such as skin test, ELISPOT and IGRA can give false positive tests because of the prior exposure to the causative agent or vaccination. Due to this drawback, there is a need for quick and confirmed identification with minimum cost.
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Other methods such as X-ray analysis are also performed, but they are mostly used as supplementary to other tests for conformation. The disease is more prevalent in Africa and Asia Pacific countries wherein 60% of the new cases identifies in 2012 were from Asia. In India alone 3 million individuals are infected with TB. The disease is mostly prevalent in low income group who cannot afford for the cost of the treatment. This has led to rise in the mortality of the untreated patients. Government is taking various initiatives to curb the spread the disease in India by offering free of cost medication and diagnosis facilities. In 2012 one-third of the HIV patients were diagnosed with TB, indicating Asia Pacific as the most important market for TB testing.Major market players in the market are Sigma-Aldrich, BD Diagnostics, VaxServe, Hardy Diagnostics, Aurora Instruments, Norgen Biotech and others.