Understanding Natural Atmosphere

The atmosphere is a layer of air that covers the earth as a whole with a thickness of more than 650 km. But literally, Atfosmer comes from the word Atmos which means water vapor (water droplets) and Sphaira which means blanket.

Atmospheric Layers Structure

Troposphere Layer

The troposphere layer is the lowest layer of the atmosphere close to the earth's surface. This layer has an average height of about 8 km at the poles to 18 km at the equator. There is about 80% of the atmosphere that makes up the troposphere layer.

In this layer, quite important weather events occur, for example wind gusts, clouds, rain, lightning, rainbows and others. Humans and other living things exist in this layer and experience various symptoms or weather and climatic events. source

 Stratosphere Layer

The second layer of the atmosphere is the stratosphere. This layer is right above the tropopause layer and has an altitude of about 49 km above sea level. In this stratosphere there is an isothermal layer located at an altitude of about 11 to 20 km with a variety of air temperatures of approximately 60 degrees C.

The layer that is cold temperature and only occupied by ozone. The statosphere layer functions as a protection from ultraviolet radiation waves which are very dangerous when exposed to human skin. The ozone layer will deplete if the activities in the world do a lot of destruction, such as massive tree cutting.

Mesosphere Layer

The third layer of the atmosphere is the mesosphere layer. This layer is at an altitude between 49 to 85 km above the earth's surface. This layer is also the place where meteors or other extraterrestrial objects will go to earth. The mesosphere layer also functions as a radio wave reflector on earth.

The characteristic of this layer is that it is located at an average height of 50 km to 85 km from the earth's surface. Its temperature profile is the same as that of the troposphere, decreasing with increasing altitude, from -2 degrees Celsius to about -92 degrees Celsius in the uppermost layer (mesopause). Mesopause is the transitional layer between the mesosphere and the thermosphere.

Thermosphere Layer

The transition from the mesosphere to the thermosphere begins at an altitude of about 81 km. It is called the thermosphere because the temperature increase is quite high in this layer around 1982 oC. These changes occur due to absorption of ultraviolet radiation. Source :

The radiation causes chemical reactions to form an electrically charged layer known as the ionosphere, which reflects radio waves. Before the advent of the satellite era, this layer was used to help transmit radio waves.

Exosphere Layer

The exosphere layer is the outermost layer where various interactions between gases in outer space occur. The strength of the earth's gravity in this layer is low because it is quite far away, this is why the gravity does not really have an effect on this layer. Knowledge :

Atmospheric Function

  • Protects so that the earth's temperature remains stable and keeps the weather and humidity in the earth stable.
  • Reduces the feeling of heat reflected directly by sunlight.
  • Protects the earth from meteors and extraterrestrial objects.
  • Keeping the earth's gravity stable.

Atmosphere Benefits

  • Maintain the stability of the earth's temperature during the day and night. If there is no atmosphere, the temperature of the earth during the day will be very hot and at night will be very cold.
  • Absorb radiation from ultraviolet rays. Without the presence of an atmosphere, the layers of the earth will be exposed to ultraviolet radiation.
  • Creating weather. This atmosphere has the benefit of creating the weather and seasons on this earth.
  • Helping living things on earth get oxygen This atmosphere has quite a lot of gaseous components. One of them is oxygen, so that without an atmosphere, creatures that live on this earth will not get oxygen freely.
  • Basic components of the hydrological cycle in human life. The water formation cycle is aided by the atmosphere.

Properties of the atmosphere

  • It is a thick gas blanket that covers the earth from 0 km to 1000 km above the Earth's surface.
  • The Earth's atmosphere does not have a sudden limit, but it gets thinner with altitude.
  • The atmosphere has no color, no smell, it cannot be felt and cannot be felt.
  • Easy to move, can be pressed and can expand.
  • It has a mass of about 56 x 1014 tons and 99% of its mass is at an altitude of 0 km to 30 km.
  • Provides resistance when an object passes through it in the form of heat due to friction (for example a meteor crashes before it reaches the earth's surface). Very important for life and as a medium for weather processes. As a blanket that protects the earth at full power from the sun during the day, preventing heat loss at night.

The Nature and Arrangement of the Atmosphere

The atmosphere is a medium for receiving and traveling exhaust gases or pollutants, especially in the troposphere. The troposphere covers space from the surface of the earth to an altitude of 10 km with a volume of 5.1 x 109 km3. This layer contains about 75% of the mass of the atmosphere.

The Earth's atmosphere consists of nitrogen (78.17%) and oxygen (20.97%), with a small amount of argon (0.9%), carbon dioxide (variable, but about 0.0357%), water vapor and other gases.

The atmosphere protects life on earth by absorbing ultraviolet radiation from the sun and reducing temperature extremes between day and night. 75% of the atmosphere is within 11 km of the planet's surface.

The atmosphere does not have a sudden boundary, but it gets thinner gradually with increasing altitude, there is no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space.

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